Evidence base for a Body Positive approach to Health + Fitness

I get it, you want proof! I’m happy to report that my philosophy is backed by a significant amount of research. Want to dive in…here are some resources you might explore.  

Studies on the Inefficacy and Harm from Weight Loss Interventions:

Bacon L & Aphramor L. (2011). Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift. Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:9

Clifford, D., Ozier, A., Bundros, J., Moore, J., Kreiser, A., & Morris, M. N. (2015). Impact of Non-Diet Approaches on Attitudes, Behaviors, and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(2), 143–155.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2014.12.002

Department of Health and Aging. National and Medical Research Council. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity in adults, adolescents and children in Australia, Melbourne 2013, p. 161.

Dulloo A., Jacquet J, Montani J (2012). How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation. Proc Nutr Soc. 2012 Aug;71(3):379-89.

Dulloo, A. et al (2015). How dieting makes the lean fatter: from a perspective of body composition autoregulation through adipostats and protein stats awaiting discovery. Obesity Reviews, 16, 25–35. doi:10.1111/obr.12253

Field A et al. (2003). Relation between dieting and weight change among preadolescents and adolescents. Pediatrics.112(4):900-906.

Fothergill E et al. (2016). Persistent Metabolic Adaptation 6 Years After “The Biggest Loser” Competition. Obesity Aug;24(8):1612-9.

Golden N, Schneider M, Wood C et al. (2016) Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents. Pediatrics.. 138(3):e20161649.

Keys A et al. The Biology of Human Starvation vol I & II. University of Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota, 1950.

Lavie C. The Obesity Paradox: When Thinner Means Sicker and Heavier Means Healthier. Hudson Street Press: .NY:NY 2014.

Lowe D. et al (2020). Effects of Time-Restricted Eating on Weight Loss and Other Metabolic Parameters in Women and Men With Overweight and Obesity The TREAT Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4153

Mann T. et al (2007). Medicare’s search for effective obesity treatments: Diets are not the answer. Am Psychologist. 62(3):220-233.

Mensinger J, Tylka T, Calamari M (2018). Mechanisms underlying weight status and healthcare avoidance inwomen: A study of weight stigma, body-related shame and guilt, and healthcare stress. Body Image 25:139-147.

Montani J, Schutz Y, Dulloo A (2015). Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: who is really at risk? Obes Rev. Feb;16 Suppl 1:7-18.

NIH Technology Assessment Conference Panel (1992). Methods for voluntary weight loss and control: Technology Assessment Conference statement. Ann Intern Med. 116:942-949.

O’Hara L & Taylor J (2018). What’s Wrong With the ‘War on Obesity?’ A Narrative Review of the Weight-Centered Health Paradigm and Development of the 3C Framework to Build Critical Competency for a Paradigm Shift. SAGE Open.April-June 2018: 1–28.

Patton, G. C., et al. (1999). Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years. British Medical Journal, 318:765-768.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). (1992). Methods for voluntary weight loss and control (Technology Assessment Conference Panel). Annals of Internal Medicine.116(11):942–949.

Pietiläinen KH, Saarni SE, Kaprio J, Rissanen A. (2012). Does dieting make you fat? A twin study. Int J Obes. Mar;36(3):456-64.

Richmond et al. Weight-Focused Public Health Interventions—No Benefit, Some Harm. JAMA Pediatrics Published online 11-16-2020.

Rothbum E. (2018). Slim Chance for Permanent Weight Loss. Archives of Scientific Psychology.6:63–69.

Solmi F, Sharpe PhD H, Gage SH, Maddock J, Lewis G, Patalay P. (2020) Changes in the Prevalence and Correlates of Weight-Control Behaviors and Weight Perception in Adolescents in the UK, 1986-2015. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Nov 16:e204746. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.4746. Epub ahead of print.

Tomiyama AJ et al. (2018). How and why weight stigma drives the obesity ‘epidemic’ and harms health. BMC Medicine 16:123.

Tomiyama AJ et al. (2016). Misclassification of cardiometabolic health when using body mass index categories in NHANES 2005-2012. Int J Obes May;40(5):883-6.

Tylka T, Annunziato S, Burgard D.,et al.(2014). The Weight-Inclusive versus Weight-Normative Approach to Health: Evaluating the Evidence for Prioritizing Well-Being over Weight Loss,” Journal of Obesity. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/983495.

Wu Y & Berry D. (2017). Impact of weight stigma on physiological and psychological health outcomes for overweight and obese adults:A systematic review. J Adv Nurs. 1–13.

Studies on Intuitive Eating: 

Avalos, L., T. Tylka, and N. Wood-Barcalow. 2005. The Body Appreciation Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Journal of Body Image 2: 285–297.

Anderson, L., E. Reilly, K. Schaumberg, S. Dmochowski, D. Anderson. 2016. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students. Eating and Weight Disorders. 21(1):83-90.

Andrew R., M. Tiggemann, L. Clark. 2016. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study. Developmental Psychology 52(3):463-474.

Andrew R., M. Tiggemann, L. Clark. 2015. Predictors of intuitive eating in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 56(2):209-214.

Augustus-Horvath, C. and T. Tylka. 2011. The acceptance model of intuitive eating: A comparison of women in emerging adulthood, early adulthood, and middle adulthood. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 58:110-125.

Barad A. et al (2019). Associations Between Intuitive Eating Behaviors and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among College Students. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2019 Jun;51(6):758-762.

Barak-Nahum A., Haim LB., and Ginzburg K. 2016. When life gives you lemons: The effectiveness of culinary group intervention among cancer patients. Soc Sci Med.166:1-8.

Barraclought EL et al. (2019). Learning to eat intuitively: A qualitative exploration of the experience of mid-age women. Health Psycholol Open 1:6(1): 2055102918824064. doi:10.1177/2055102918824064.

Bas M, Karaca KE, Saglam D, Arıtıcı G, Cengiz E, Köksal S, Buyukkaragoz AH. 2017. Turkish version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2: Validity and reliability among university students. Appetite. 114:391-397.

Bégin C, Carbonneau E, Gagnon-Girouard MP, Mongeau L, Paquette MC, Turcotte M, Provencher V (2018.). Eating-Related and Psychological Outcomes of Health at Every Size Intervention in Health and Social Services Centers Across the Province of Québec. Am J Health Promot. 2018 Jan 1:890117118786326. doi: 10.1177/0890117118786326

Beinter I, Emmerich O, Vollert B, Taylor C, Jacobi (2019). Promoting positive body image and intuitive eating in women with overweight and obesity via an online intervention: Results from a pilot feasibility study. Eat Behav. Aug;34:101307.2

Boucher S, Edwards O, Gray A, Nada-Raja S, Lillis J, Tylka TL, Horwath CC (2016). Teaching Intuitive Eating and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Skills Via a Web-Based Intervention: A Pilot Single-Arm Intervention Study. JMIR Res Protocol 2016;5(4):e180 URL: http://www.researchprotocols.org/2016/4/e180

Burnette B. & Mazzeo (2020). An uncontrolled pilot feasibility trial of an intuitive eating intervention for college women with disordered eating … Int J Eat Disorder. June:1–13⁣

Bruce, L., and L. Ricciardelli. 2016. A systematic review of the psychosocial correlates of intuitive eating among adult women. Appetite. 96:454-472.

Bush, H., L. Rossy, L. Mintz, L. Schopp. 2014. Eat for Life: A Work Site Feasibility Study of a Novel Mindfulness-Based Intuitive Eating Intervention. American Journal of Health Promotion 28(6):380-388.

Camilleri, G., C. Méjea, F. Bellisle, V. Andreeva, E. Kesse-Guyot, S. Hercberg, S. Péneau. 2016. Intuitive eating is inversely associated with body weight status in the general population based NutriNet-Santé study. Obesity. doi: 10.1002/oby.21440.

Camilleri, G., C. Méjea, F. Bellisle, V. Andreeva, E. Kesse-Guyot, S. Hercberg, S. Péneau. 2017. Intuitive Eating Dimensions Were Differently Associated with Food Intake in the General Population-Based NutriNet-Santé Study. Journal of Nutrition. Jan;147(1):61-69. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.234088.

Carbonneau E., N. Carbonneau, B. Lamarche, V. Provencher, C. Bégin, M. Bradette-Laplante, C. Laramée, S. Lemieux. 2016. Validation of a French-Canadian adaptation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 for the adult population. Appetite 105(1): 37-45.

Carbonneau E, Bégin C, Lemieux S, Mongeau L, Paquette MC, Turcotte M, Labonté MÈ, Provencher V. (2017). A Health at Every Size intervention improves intuitive eating and diet quality in Canadian women. Clin Nutr. 36(3):747-754.

Carbonneau N., E. Carbonneau, M. Cantin, M. Gagnon-Girouard. 2015. Examining women’s perceptions of their mother’s and romantic partner’s interpersonal styles for a better understanding of their eating regulation and intuitive eating. Appetite. 92:156-66.

Carraça EV, Leong SL, Horwath CC (2018.). Weight-focused physical activity is associated with poorer eating motivation quality and lower Intuitive Eating in women. J Acad Nutr Diet. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2018.09.011

Carrard I, Rothen S, Rodgers RF (2021). Body image concerns and intuitive eating in older women. Appetite. 2021 Apr 26:105275. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2021.105275

Christoph MJ, Loth KA, Eisenberg ME, Haynos AF, Larson N, Neumark-Sztainer D (2018). Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2018 Mar;50(3):267-274.e1.doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2017.11.001

Christoph MJ, et al. (2021) Intuitive Eating is Associated With Higher Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Adults. J Nutr Educ Behav. Jan 7:S1499-4046(20)30746-6

Christoph MJ et al (2021). Longitudinal associations between intuitive eating and weight-related behaviors in a population-based sample of young adults. Appetite. 160: doi.org/10.1016/appet.2021.105093

Coimbra M, Ferreira C. Making the leap from healthy to disordered eating: the role of intuitive and inflexible eating attitudes in orthorexic behaviours among women. Eat Weight Disord. 2020 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s40519-020-00998-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32902789.

Cole, R., H. Clark , J. Heileson, J. DeMay, M.Smith. 2016. Normal Weight Status in Military Service Members Was Associated With Intuitive Eating Characteristic. Military Medicine 181(6):589-595.

Cole R., and K. Horace. 2010. Effectiveness of the “My Body Knows When” Intuitive-eating Pilot Program. American Journal Health Behav 34(3):286-297.

Cole R., Meyer S., Newman T., et al. 2019. The My Body Knows When program increased intuitive eating characteristics in a military population. Mil Med. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usy403.

Craven M & Fekete E. (2019). Weight-related shame and guilt, intuitive eating, and binge eating in female college students. Appetite. Oi.10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.03.002

Da Silva, W. R., Neves, A. N., Ferreira, L., Campos, J. A. D. B., & Swami, V. (2018). A psychometric investigation of Brazilian Portuguese versions of the Caregiver Eating Messages Scale and Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. doi:10.1007/s40519-018-0557-3

Daundasekara SS, Beasley AD, O’Connor DP, Sampson M, Hernandez D, Ledoux T. 2017. Validation of the Intuitive Eating Scale for pregnant women. Appetite.112:201-209.

Denny, K., K. Loth, M. Eisenberg, D. Neumark–Sztainer, D. 2013. Intuitive eating in young adults. Who is doing it, and how is it related to disordered eating behaviors? Appetite 60:13–19.

DeVille DC, Erchull MJ, Mailloux JR. (2021). Intuitive eating mediates the relationship between interoceptive accuracy and eating disorder risk. Eat Behav. Mar 3;41:101495. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101495.

Dockendorff, S., T. Petrie, C. Greenleaf, S. Martin. 2012. Intuitive Eating Scale: An examination among early Adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(4):604-611.

Duarte C., Ferreira C., Pinto-Gouveia J., Trindade I.A., Martinho A. 2017. What makes dietary restraint problematic? Development and validation of of the Inflexible Eating Questionnaire. Appetite. 114:146-154.

Eneli, I., T. Tylka , J. Lumeng. 2015. Maternal and Child Roles in the Feeding Relationship: What Are Mothers Doing? Clinical Pediatrics. 54(2):179–182.

Ellis, J., A. Galloway, R. Webb, D. Martz, C. Farrow. 2016. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior. Appetite. 97:58-63. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.11.020.

Galloway A., C. Farrow, D. Martz. 2010. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students. Obesity, 18, 1330-1335.

Gan WY and Yeoh WC (2017). Associations between body weight status, psychological wellbeing and disordered eating with Intuitive Eating among Malaysian undergraduate university students. Int J Adolesc Med Health. Sept 13.

Gast, J., H. Madanat, A. Nielson. 2011. Are Men More Intuitive When It Comes to Eating and Physical Activity? Americna Journal Men Health. doi: 10.1177/1557988311428090.

Gast, J., A. Nielson, A. Hunt, J. Leiker. 2015. Intuitive eating: associations with physical activity motivation and BMI. American Journal of Public Health. 29(3):e91-9. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.130305-QUAN-97.

Gravel K., A. Deslauriers, M. Watiez, M. Dumont, A. Dufour Bouchard, V. Provencher. 2014. Sensory-Based Nutrition Pilot Intervention for Women. The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietics 114 :99-06.

Gravel K., et al. 2014. Effect of sensory-based intervention on the increased use of food-related descriptive terms among restrained eaters. Food Quality and Preference. 32:271-276.

Hahn K., M. Wiseman, J. Hendrickson, J. Phillips, E. Hayden. 2012. Intuitive Eating and College Female Athletes. Psychology of Women Quarterly. doi: 10.1177/0361684311433282

Hawks, S., H. Madanat, J. Hawks, A. Harris. 2005. The relationship between intuitive eating and health indicators amongcollegewomen. American Journal of Health Education 36, 331-336.

Hawks, S., R. Merrill, H. Madanat. 2004 . The Intuitive Eating Validation Scale: preliminary validation. American Journal of Health Education, 35, 90-98.

Hawks, S., R. Merrill, T. Miyagawa, J. Suwanteerangkul, C. Guarin, C. Shaofang. 2004. Intuitive eating and the nutrition transition in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 13, 194-203.

Heileson, J., R. Cole (2011). Assessing Motivation for Eating and Intuitive Eating in Military Service Members. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111 (9S): Page A26.

Herbert, B., J. Blechert, M. Hautzinger, E. Matthias, C. Herbert. 2013. Intuitive eating is associated with interoceptive sensitivity. Effects on body mass index. Appetite 70:22–30.

Homan KJ and Tylka TL. (2018). Development and exploration of the gratitude model of body appreciation in women. Body Image. 2018 Feb 8;25:14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.01.008.

Horwath, C., Hagmann, D., & Hartmann, C. (2019). Intuitive eating and food intake in men and women: Results from the Swiss food panel study. Appetite. 1(135):61-71. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2018.12.036

Humphrey, L., D. Clifford, M. Neyman Morris. 2015. Health at Every Size College Course Reduces Dieting Behaviors and Improves Intuitive Eating, Body Esteem, and Anti-Fat Attitudes. Journal of Nutrition Education. 47(4):354-360.

Iannantuono, A., and T. Tylka. 2012. Interpersonal and intrpersonal links to body appreciation in college women: an exploratory model. Body Image 9(2):227-235.

Jarvela-Reijonen, E., L. Karhunen, E. Sairanen, S. Rantala, J. Laitinen, S. Puttonen, K. Peuhkuri, M. Hallikainen, K. Juvonen, T. Myllymaki, T. Fohr, J. Pihlajamaki, R. Korpela, M.

Ermes, R. Lappalainen, M. Kolehmainen. 2016. High perceived stress is associated with unfavorable eating behavior in overweight and obese Finns of working age. Appetite 103:249-258.

Jarvela-Reijonen, E., et al (2018). The effects of acceptance and commitment therapy on eating behavior and diet delivered through face-to-face contact and a mobile app: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 Feb 27;15(1):22.

Katzer, L., A. Bradshaw, C. Horwath, A. Gray, S. O’Brien, J. Joyce 2008. Evaluation of a “nondieting” stress reduction program for overweight women: a randomized trial. American Journal of Health Promotion 22(4):267-274.

Kelly, A., and E. Stephen. 2016. A daily diary study of self-compassion, body image, and eating behavior in female college students. Body Image.17:152-160. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.03.006.

Kelly AC, Miller KE, Stephen E. (2016).The benefits of being self-compassionate on days when interactions with body-focused others are frequent. Body Image. Dec;19:195-203. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.10.005.

Kerin JL, Webb HJ, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ (2019). Intuitive, mindful, emotional, external and regulatory eating behaviours and beliefs: An investigation of the core components. Appetite. 2019 Jan 1;132:139-146. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.10.011.

Keirns NG & Hawkins MAW (2019). The relationship between intuitive eating and body image is moderated by measured body mass index. Eat Behav. 23(33):91-96.

Khalsa, A. S., Woo, J. G., Kharofa, R. Y., Geraghty, S. R., DeWitt, T. G., & Copeland, K. A. (2019). Parental intuitive eating behaviors and their association with infant feeding styles among low-income families. Eating Behaviors, 32, 78–84. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.01.001

Khalsa, A, Stough C, Garr K, Copeland K, Kharofa R, Woo J (2019). Factor structure of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 among a low-income and racial minority population. Appetite. Nov 1;142:104390.

König LM, Sproesser G, Schupp HT, Renner B.(2020). Preference for Intuition and Deliberation in Eating Decision-making: Scale validation and associations with eating behaviour and health. Br J Health Psychol. doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12460.

Koller KA, Thompson KA, Miller AJ, Walsh EC, Bardone-Cone AM. Body appreciation and intuitive eating in eating disorder recovery. Int J Eat Disord. 2020 Aug;53(8):1261- 1269. doi: 10.1002/eat.23238..

Kroon Van Diest, A., and T. Tylka. 2010. The Caregiver Eating Messages Scale: Development and psychometric investigation. Body Image 7:317-326.

Leahy K., Berlin K.S., Banks G.G., Bachman J. 2017. The relationship between Intuitive Eating and postpartum weight loss. Matern Child Health. 21(3):1591-1597.

Lee M et al. (2019). Striving for the thin ideal post-pregnancy: cross-sectional study of intuitive eating in postpartum women. J Reprod Infant Psychol. Apr 30:1-12.

Leong, S., A.Gray, J. Haszard, C. Horwath. 2016. Weight-Control Methods, 3-Year Weight Change, and Eating Behaviors: A Prospective Nationwide Study of Middle-Aged New Zealand Women. J Acad of Nutr Dietet doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.02.021.

Linardon J., Tylka T., and Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M. 2021. Intuitive eating and its psychological correlates: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2021:1-26.

Linardon J, Mitchell S. 2017. Rigid dietary control, flexible dietary control, and intuitive eating. Evidence for their differential relationship to disordered eating and body image concerns. Eat Behav. 26:16-22.

Luo U, Niu G, Kong F, Chen (2019). Online interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and Chinese adolescent girls’ intuitive eating: The role of broad conceptualization of beauty and body appreciation. Eat Behav. 2019 Apr;33:55-60.

MacDougall, E. . (2010). An Examination of a Culturally Relevant Model of Intuitive Eating with African American College Women. University of Akron, 2010. Dissertation 218 pp.

Madanat, H., and S. Hawks. 200). Validation of the Arabic version of the Intuitive Eating Scale. Global Health Promotion (Formerly Promotion and Education), 11, 152-157.

Madden, C., S. Leong, A. Gray, C. Horwath. 2012. Eating in response to hunger and satiety signals is related to BMI in a nationwide sample of 1601 mid-age New Zealand women. Public Health Nutrition, Mar:1-8.

Mensinger, J., R. Calogero, T. Tylka. 2016. Internalized weight stigma moderates eating behavior outcomes in women with high BMI participating in a healthy living program. Appetite. 102:32-43

Mensinger JL, Calogero RM, Stranges S, Tylka TL (2016).. A weight-neutral versus weight-loss approach for health promotion in women with high BMI: A randomized-controlled trial. Appetite. Oct 1;105:364-74. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.06.006.

Miller K., Kelly A., Stephen E. 2019. Exposure to body focused and non-body focuses other over a week: A preliminary investigation of their unique contributions to college women’s eating and body image. Body Image. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.12.003

Moy, J., T. Petrie, S. Dockendorff, C. Greenleaf, S. Martin. 2013. Dieting, exercise, and intuitive eating among early adolescents. Eating Behaviors. 14: 529-532.

Nejati B, Fan CW, Boone WJ, Griffiths MD, Lin CY, Pakpour AH. Validating the Persian Intuitive Eating Scale-2 Among Breast Cancer Survivors Who Are Overweight/Obese. Eval Health Prof. 2020 Oct 15:163278720965688. doi: 10.1177/0163278720965688.

Nielsen, T., and R. Powell 2015. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams. Frontiers in Psychology 6:47.

Nogue M, Nogue E, Molinari N, Macioce V, Avignon, Sultan (2019). Intuitive eating is associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery in women. Am J Clin Nutr doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz046.

Ogden J, Pavlova E, Fouracre H, Lammyman F.(2020)/ The impact of intuitive eating v. pinned eating on behavioural markers: a preliminary investigation. J Nutr Sci. 2020 Aug 12;9:e34. doi: 10.1017/jns.2020.25.

Outland, L, Madanat H., and Rust F. 2013. Intuitive Eating for a Healthy Weight. Primary Health Care 2013 23: 9 , 22 -28

Oswald, A., Chapman, J., and Wilson, C. 2017. Do interoceptive awareness and interoceptive responsiveness mediate the relationship between body appreciation and intuitive eating inyoung women? Appetite 109:66-72. PMID:27866989

Özkan N, Bilici S. Are anthropometric measurements an indicator of intuitive and mindful eating? Eat Weight Disord. 2020 Apr 24. doi: 10.1007/s40519-020-00904-9.

Paterson H, Hay-Smith J, Treharne G., Herbison P., Howarth C. (2018). Validation of the Intuitive Eating Scale in pregnancy. J Health Psychol. 2018 Apr;23(5):701-709. doi: 10.1177/1359105316671186.

Peschel SKV, Tylka TL, Williams DP, Kaess M, Thayer JF, Koenig J. (2018). Is intuitive eating related to resting state vagal activity? Auton Neurosci. Mar;210:72-75. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2017.11.005.

Plante A., Savard, C., Lemieux S. et al. (2019). Trimester-specific intuitive eating in association with gestational weight gain and diet quality. J Nutr Educ Behav. (10):20025-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2019.01.011

Plateau CR, Petrie TA, Papathomas A (2017). Learning to eat again: Intuitive eating practices among retired female collegiate athletes. Eating Disorders. 25(1):92-98.

Quansah D, Gilbert L, Gross J, Horsch, A, Puder J (2019). Intuitive eating is associated with improved health indicators at 1-year postpartum in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Health Psychol doi: 10.1177/1359105319869814

Quansah D, Gross,J, Gilbert L, Helbling C, Horsch, A, Puder J (2019). Intuitive eating is associated with weight and glucose control during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): A clinical cohort study. Eat Behav 2019 Aug;34:101304.

Ramos, M. H., Silva, J. M., De Oliveira, T. A. V., da Silva Batista, J., Cattafesta, M., Salaroli, L. B., & Soares, F. L. P. (2020). Intuitive eating and body appreciation in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Health Psychology, 135910532095079. doi:10.1177/1359105320950791

Reel JJ, Gailli N., Voelker D., and Greeleaf C. 2016. Development and validation of the intuitive exercise scale. Eat Behav. 22:129-132.

Reichenberger, J (2019). “I will fast … tomorrow”: Intentions to restrict eating and actual restriction in daily life and their person-level predictors. Appetite.

Ricciardelli BL (2016). A systematic review of the psychosocial correlates of intuitive eating among adult women. Appetite. 2016; 96:454-472

Richard A, Meule A, Georgii C, Voderholzer U, Cuntz U, Wilhelm F, Blechert J. Associations between interoceptive sensitivity, intuitive eating, and body mass index in patients with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight controls. Eur Eat Disord Rev. Sep;27(5):571-577.

Richards PS, Crowton S, Berrett ME, Smith MH, Passmore K (2017). Can patients with eating disorders learn to eat intuitively? A 2-year pilot study. Eat Disord. 2017 Feb 2:1-15. doi: 10.1080/10640266.2017.1279907.

Rochefort G, Provencher V, Castonguay-Paradis S, Perron J, Lacroix S, Martin C, Flamand N,

Di Marzo V, Veilleux A. Intuitive eating is associated with elevated levels of circulating omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived endocannabinoidome mediators. Appetite. 2021 Jan 1;156:104973. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2020.104973. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Romano, K. A., Swanbrow Becker, M. A., Colgary, C. D., & Magnuson, A. (2018). Helpful or harmful? The comparative value of self-weighing and calorie counting versus intuitive eating on the eating disorder symptomology of college students. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. doi:10.1007/s40519-018-0562-6

Ruzanska UA and Warschburger P (2017). Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 in a community sample. Appetite. 117:126-134.

Ruzanska UA and Warschburger P (2019). Intuitive eating mediates the relationship between self-regulation and BMI – Results from a cross-sectional study in a community sample. Eat Behav. 18;33:23-29. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.02.004

Sairanen, E., A. Tolvanen, L. Karhunen, M. Kolehmainen, E. Jarvela, S. Rantala, K. Peuhkuri, R.

Korpela, R. Lappalainen. 2015. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults. Behavior Modification. 39(4):554-579.

Sairanen, E., et al (2017). Psychological flexibility mediates change in Intuitive Eating regulation in acceptance and commitment therapy interventions. Public Health Nutr. 20(9):1681-1691.

Saunders JF, Nichols-Lopez KA, Frazier LD (2018). Psychometric properties of the intuitive eating scale-2 (IES-2) in a culturally diverse Hispanic American sample. Eat Behav. Jan;28:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2017.11.003.

Schaefer, J., and M. Zullo. 2016. Validation of an instrument to measure registered dietitians’/nutritionists’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of an intuitive eating approach. Public Health Nutrition 1:1-19.

Schaefer, J., and A. Magnuson. 2014. A review of interventions that promote eating by internal cues. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 114,734e760.

Schaefer, J. and M. Zullo. 2017. US Registered dietitian nutritionist’s knowledge and attitudes of Intuitive Eating and use of various weight management practices. J Acad Nutr Diet. 117(9):1419-1428.

Schoenefeld, S., and J. Webb. 2013. Self-compassion and intuitive eating in college women: Examining the contributions of distress tolerance and body image acceptance and action. Eating Behavior 14(4):493-6.

Sebastian RM, Smith JE (2020). Evaluation of the relationships between dietary restraint, emotional eating, and intuitive eating moderated by sex. Appetite. 1;155:104817. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2020.104817.

Shouse, S., and J. Nilsson. 2011. Self-Silencing, Emotional Awareness, and Eating Behaviors in College Women Psychology of Women Quarterly 35: 451-457.

Smitham, L. 2008. Evaluating an Intuitive Eating Program for Binge Eating Disorder: A Benchmarking Study. University of Notre Dame, Dissertation. 26 November 2008.

Smith JM, Serier KN, Belon KE, Sebastian RM, Smith JE. Evaluation of the relationships between dietary restraint, emotional eating, and intuitive eating moderated by sex. Appetite. 2020 Dec 1;155:104817. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2020.104817.

Smith, T., and S. Hawks. 2006. Intuitive eating, diet composition, and the meaning of food in healthy weight promotion. American Journal of Health Education 37:130-136.

Soares FLP, Ramos MH, Gramelisch M, de Paula Pego Silva R, da Silva Batista J, Cattafesta M, Salaroli LB. Intuitive eating is associated with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Eat Weight Disord. 2020 Mar 30. doi: 10.1007/s40519-020-00894-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32232778.

Spoor, K., and H. Madanat. 2016. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 36:189-197.

Strodl E, et al (2020). A cross-country examination of emotional eating, restrained eating and intuitive eating: Measurement Invariance across eight countries. Body Image. 2020 Dec;35:245-254. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.09.013. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Swami V, Todd J, Zahari HS, Mohd Khatib NA, Toh EKL, Barron D (2020). Dimensional structure, psychometric properties, and sex and ethnic invariance of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2). Body Image. 2020 Mar;32:167-179. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.01.003.

Tylka, T. 2006. Development and psychometric evaluation of a measure of intuitive eating. Journal of Counseling Psychology 53:226-240.

Tylka,T., and K. Homan. 2015. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating. Body Image. 15:90-97.

Tylka, T., R. Calogero, and S. Danielsdottir. 2015. Is intuitive eating the same as flexible dietary control? Their links to each other and well-being could provide an answer. Appetite 95: 166-175.

Tylka, T., R. Calogero, and S. Danielsdottir. 2019. Intuitive eating is connected to self-reported weight stability in community women and men. Eat Disorder. 1:1-9. doi: 10.1080/10640266.2019.1580126.

Tylka, T., J. Lumeng, I. Eneli. 2015. Maternal intuitive eating as a moderator of the association between concern about child weight and restrictive child feeding. Appetite. Dec 1;95:158-65.

Tylka, T., I. Eneli, A. Kroon Van Diest, J. Lumeng. 2013. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year old children. Eating Behavior 14(1):57-63.

Tylka, T., and A. Kroon Van Diest. 2013. The Intuitive Eating Scale–2: Item Refinement and Psychometric Evaluation with College Women and Men. Journal of Counseling Psychology 60(1):137-153.

Tylka, T. 2006. Development and psychometric evaluation of a measure of intuitive eating. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 226-240.

Tylka, T., and J. Wilcox. 2006. Are intuitive eating and eating disorder symptomatology opposite poles of the same construct? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 474-485.

Tylka, T., Calogero R., Danielsdottir S. 2019. Intuitive eating is connected to self-reported weight stability in community women and men. Eat Disorder. 1:1-9.

Van Dyke, N., and E. Drinkwater. 2014. Relationships between intuitive eating and health indicators: literature review. Public Health Nutrition 17(8):1757-66.

Van Dyck, A., Herbert, B., Happ, C., Kleveman G., and C. Vogele. 2016. German version of the intuitive eating scale: Psychometric evaluation and application to an eating disordered population. Appetite. 105:798-807.

Vintilă M, Todd J, Goian C, Tudorel O, Barbat CA, Swami V. The Romanian version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2: Assessment of its psychometric properties and gender invariance in Romanian adults. Body Image. 2020 Dec;35:225-236. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.09.009. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Warren JM, Smith N, Ashwell M. (2017). A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms. Nutr Res Rev. 2017 Dec;30(2):272-

Wilson RE, Marshall RD, Murakami JM, Latner JD. Brief non-dieting intervention increases intuitive eating and reduces dieting intention, body image dissatisfaction, and anti-fat attitudes: A randomized controlled trial. Appetite. 2020 May 1;148:104556. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2019.104556. Epub 2020 Jan 1. PMID: 31901439. 283. doi: 10.1017/S0954422417000154.

Webb, J., and A. Hardin. 2016. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and Intuitive Eating in college women. Appetite. 102:60-69. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.02.024.

Wheeler, B., J. Lawrence, M. Chae, H. Paterson, A. Gray, D. Healey, D. Reith, B. Taylor. 2016. Intuitive eating is associated with glycaemic control in adolescents with type I diabetes mellitus. Appetite. 96:160-165.

Willig AL, Richardson BS, Agne A, Cherrington A. (2014). Intuitive eating practices among African-American women living with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jun;114(6):889-96.

Wirtz., A., and H. Madanat. 2012. Westernization, intuitive eating, and BMI: an exploration of Jordanian adolescents. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 33(3):275-287.

Studies on Interoceptive Awareness:

(the ability to be aware of your internal signals) 

Ainley V & Tsakiris M (2013). Body Conscious? Interoceptive Awareness, Measured by Heartbeat Perception, Is Negatively Correlated with Self-Objectification. PLOS One. 8(2): e55568. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055568

Craig, AD (2009). How do you feel — now? The anteriorinsula and human awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 10:59. A.D. (Bud) Craig (2015). How Do You Feel? An Interoceptive Moment with Your Neurobiolgical Self. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.

Craske MG, Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Labus J et al. (2011). A cognitive-behavioral treatment for irritable bowel syndrome using interoceptive exposure to visceral sensations. Behav Res Ther. Jun; 49(6-7): 413–421.

Herbert BM, Muth ER, Pollatos O, Herbert C (2012) Interoception across Modalities: On the Relationship between Cardiac Awareness and the Sensitivity for Gastric Functions. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36646. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036646.

Herbert, B., J. Blechert, M. Hautzinger, E. Matthias, C. Herbert. (2013). Intuitive eating is associated with interoceptive sensitivity. Effects on body mass index. Appetite 70:22–30.

Jenkinson PM, Taylor L, Laws KR (2018). Self-reported interoceptive deficits in eating disorders: A meta-analysis of studies using the eating disorder inventory. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 110 (2018) 38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2018.04.005

Kjalsa S, Adolph R, Oliver G et al. (2018). Interoception and Mental Health: A Roadmap. Biological Psychiatry:CNNI. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.12.004.

Mehling WE, Acree M, Stewart A. et al. (2018). The Multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness, version 2 (MAIA-2). PLOS ONE. May (9): 798.

Mehling WE, Chesney,MA, Metzler TJ, et al.(2017). A 12-week integrative exercise program improves self-reported mindfulness and interoceptive awareness in war veterans with posttraumatic stress symptoms. J. Clin. Psychol.1–12. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2b22j504

Nummenmaa L, Hari R , Hietanen JK et al. (2018). Maps of subjective feelings. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 11;115(37):9198-9203. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1807390115.

Oswald, A., Chapman, J., and Wilson, C. 2017. Do interoceptive awareness and interoceptive responsiveness mediate the relationship between body appreciation and intuitive eating in young women? Appetite 109:66-72. PMID:27866989

Price CJ and Hooven (2018). Interoceptive awareness skills for emotion regulation: Theory and approach of mindful awareness in body-oriented therapy (MABT). Frontiers in Psych. May (9): 798.

Zamariola G, Cardini F, Mian E et al. (2017). Can you feel the body that you see? On the relationship between interoceptive accuracy and body image. Body Image. Mar;20:130-136. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.01.005

Studies on Food Restriction, Dieting and Binge Eating: 

Cabeza de Vaca & Carr (1998). Food Restriction Enhances the Central Rewarding Effect of Abused Drugs. J Neuroscience, 18(18):7502–7510.

Carr (2011). Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: Binge eating and drug abuse. Physiology & Behavior, 104:162–167.

Field A et al. (2003). Relation between dieting and weight change among preadolescents and adolescents. Pediatrics.112(4):900-906.

Franklin JC et al.(1948). Observations on human behavior in experimental semi-starvation and rehabilitation. J Clin Psychol. 4(1):28-45.

Homes M et al. (2014). Improving prediction of binge episodes by modelling chronicity of dietary restriction. Eur Eat Disorders Rev 22:405-411.

Hudson J et al. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61(3):348-58.Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61(3):348-58.

Jansen E., Mulkens S. & Jansen A. (2007). Do not eat the red food!: Prohibition of snacks leads to their relatively higher consumption in children. Appetite. 40:572-577.

Jansen E., Mulkens S, Edmond E. et al, (2008). From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruits and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children. Appetite. 51:570-575.

Kahathuduwa C et al (2016). Brain regions involved in ingestive behavior and related psychological constructs in people undergoing calorie restriction. Appetite 107:348-361.

Keeler C., Mattes R., & Tan S. (2015). Anticipatory and reactive responses to chocolate restriction in frequent chocolate consumers. Obesity. 23:1130-1135.

Kristeller JL, & Wolever RQ (2011). Mindfulness-based eating awareness training for treating binge eating disorder: the conceptual foundation. Jan 2011; Eating disorders, 19 (1), 49-61.

Masheb R, Kutz A., Marsh A., et al (2019). “Making weight” during military service is related to binge eating and eating pathology for veterans later in life. Eating and Weight Disorders: SABO. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-019-00766-w

Massey A. & Hill A.J.(2012). Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study Appetite. Jun;58(3):781-5.

Neumark-Sztainer et al. (2011). Dieting and disordered eating behaivors from adolescence to you adulthood: Findings from a 10-year longitudinal study. J am Diet Assoc. 111:1004-1011.

Peneau S et al. (2013). Sex and dieting modify the association between emotional eating and weight status. Am J Clin Nutr. 97:1307-13.

Polivy J (1996). Psycholgical consequences of food restriction. J Am Diet Assoc 96:589.

Polivy J & Herman C (1985.) Dieting and bingeing: a causal analysis. Am Psychologist.

Polivy J et al. (2005). The effect of deprivation om food cravings and eating behavior in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Int J Eat Disord 38:301-309.

Santos I. et al. (2017). Prevalence of personal weight control attempts in adults:a systemic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Rev 18:32-50.

Smitham.L. (2008).Evaluating an Intuitive Eating Program for Binge Eating Disorder: A Benchmarking Study. University of Notre Dame, 26 November 2008.

Stice E. et al (2008). Fasting increases risk for onset of binge eating and bulimic pathology: A 5-year prospective study. J Abnorm Psychol 117(4):941-946.

Stice E. et al (2013). Caloric deprivation increases responsivity of attention and reward brain regions to intake, anticipated intake, and images of palatable foods. NeuroImage. 67(15):322–330

A special thank you to:

Evelyn Tribole, MS, RDN, CEDRD-S for the creation of this list. Latest revision April 2021.